Emotional abuse and withdrawal is a common sign of nursing home abuse and neglect. A senior experiencing psychological or mental abuse can show signs of emotional withdrawal and reclusive behaviors, avoidance of social situations and may shut out others.
Emotionally withdrawn seniors are detached, aloof, and reclusive. If a typically engaged and outgoing senior becomes secluded and removed, this is an indication of emotional withdrawal. Emotional withdrawal can manifest in the form of silence around caretakers, especially if the caretakers are the ones causing the elder discomfort.
What Is Elder Emotional Abuse?
According to the Administration for Community Living, part of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, emotional abuse is “inflicting mental pain, anguish, or distress on an elderly person through verbal or nonverbal acts.”
Examples of the red flags of emotional abuse include:
- The humiliation of the elder
- Intimidation of the elder
- Threatening behavior towards the elder
- Isolation of the elder from other residents or activities
- Ignoring the elder
Emotional withdrawal and silence around caretakers are common signs of emotional abuse.
What Causes Emotional Abuse?
90% of perpetrators of elder psychological abuse are family members.(1) There are many reasons why this could be the case, including:
- Family members such as a daughter taking on unexpected responsibilities. The stress causes them to blame the victim.
- Caregiver substance abuse such as alcoholism
- Caregiver workload
- The degree of elderly health problem. Elderly mental health issue such as dementia such as memory and cognitive impairment. The elderly may repeat questions, have bathroom issues, and other pressures.
Signs of Emotional Abuse in the Elderly
The National Center on Elder Abuse lists sudden, unexplained behavioral changes, such as emotional withdrawal and silence around caretakers, as red flags of psychological/emotional abuse. Other emotional abuse signs include:
- Changes in outgoingness and levels of interaction with staff and other residents, reluctance to talk
- Avoidance of eye contact, darting eyes, evasiveness
- Agitated or fearful behavior in the presence of certain caretakers
- Change in behavior when the abuser is in the room
- Confusion not related to a medical problem
- Changes in eating or sleeping routine
- Aggressive behavior
- A nursing home that will not let you be alone with the patient
If you notice several of these behavioral changes, you should investigate if these changes are the result of emotional abuse by a family member or are a symptom of nursing home abuse.
The Incidence of Psychological Abuse
Studies have shown that psychological abuse has a reported incidence rate of 54.1%(1) despite the difficulty of having no clear evidence or concrete assessment criteria. A study in 2012 by the Bureau of Justice Statistics and the National Center on Elder Abuse reports that elder neglect was the most common form of elder abuse.(2)
Reasons to Report Elderly Emotional Abuse Cases
There are two types of abuse symptoms:
Unlike the effects of physical abuse, the effects of emotional abuse are almost entirely behavioral. Emotional abuse cases often go unreported because of the lack of visible physical symptoms.
However, emotional abuse can result in:
- Personality changes and the development of personality disorders (ex. schizophrenia)
- Beginning or worsening of cognitive decline
- Post-traumatic stress disorder
- Anxiety disorders
How to Report Emotional Abuse Cases
Follow these steps if you suspect emotional abuse:
- Report the behaviors of caretakers and their effects on the patient to the manager of the nursing home. Be prepared to take further action if the facility manager does not take steps to remediate the situation.
- Alert state authorities. If the nursing home is in New Jersey, visit the New Jersey Long Term Care Ombudsman Website to learn more about filing a complaint about the care quality or staff. If the agency determines that the behavior violates elder abuse laws, it will initiate an investigation.
- If you believe that emotional distress is the result of negligence or abuse, we suggest speaking with one of our Howard Law attorneys at (201) 488-4644.
Some aspects of emotional abuse, such as threatening harm, destroying personal property, are criminal and warrant legal action. If a patient reports any of these behaviors, keep a record of these accounts. Document any behavioral changes.
Concerned About Nursing Home or Long Term Care Abuse and Neglect?
For a case evaluation call (201) 488-4644 or fill out the form below.
(1) Devious Damage: Elder Psychological Abuse By Margie Eckroth-Bucher, PhD, RN, PMHCNS-BC
Aging Well Vol. 1 No. 4 P. 24
(2) National Center on Elder Abuse
Bureau of Justice Statistics
Signs and Symptoms of Physical Abuse in the Elderly
The Nursing Home Abuse Guide
Administration for Community Living, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
Brown and Brown: Attorneys At Law
The National Center on Elder Abuse
American Society on Aging
Family Caregivers Online
A Place for Mom
SI Elder Law, LLC
New Jersey Department of Health
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